The monument and the headquarters marker for the Third Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia are southwest of Gettysburg on West Confederate Avenue. (Tour map: West Confederate Avenue – Pt. 2)
The actual location of the Third Corps headquarters on the second and third day of the battle was about 500 yards west of the monument.
The headquarters marker is a Confederate-made 12-pounder Napoleon cast in Augusta, Georgia in 1864, set into a hexagonal granite base. Bronze tablets are set into the face of the base and on the cannon barrel. It was erected in 1920 by the Gettysburg National Military Park Commission.
The newly created Third Corps was commanded at the Battle of Gettysburg by Lieutenant General Ambrose Powell Hill, a career army officer and West Point graduate (USMA ’47) from Virginia.
A division of Hill’s corps began the Battle of Gettysburg, two thirds of Pickett’s Charge was made up of Hill’s men, and the Third Corps suffered the highest Confederate casualties in the battle. But Hill played a relatively small part in the fight due to the illness that plagued him throughout the war.
From the monument:
Army of Northern Virginia
Third Army Corps
Lieutenant General Ambrose P. Hill
Anderson’s Division Major General R. H. Anderson
Heth’s Division Major General Henry Heth
Brigadier General J. J. Pettigrew
Pender’s Division Major General William D. Pender
Brigadier General James H. Lane,
Major General 1. R. Trimble
Nine Batteries Colonel R. Lindsay Walker
July 1. The Corps was near Cashtown. Heth’s Division at 5 A. M. moved towards Gettysburg. Two brigades with artillery advancing across Willoughby Run were soon engaged. Archer’s Brigade was driven across the run. After resting an hour Heth’s Division formed line west of Willoughby Run and advanced with Pender’s Division in reserve. 2.30 P. M. the right of Ewell’s Corps appeared on the left. Pender’s Division was ordered forward. After a severe contest the Union forces were driven back and through the town. The two divisions bivouacked on the ground gained. Anderson’s Division bivouacked two miles in rear.
July 2. Anderson’s Division extended to the right along the crest of hills facing Cemetery Ridge Pender’s Division occupying the crest from the Seminary and joining Anderson’s Division with Heth’s Division in reserve the artillery in position on Seminary Ridge. The First Corps ordered to attack the left of Union forces the Third Corps to cooperate. General Anderson moved forward three brigades connecting with the left of McLaws’s Division and drove the Union forces from their position. Anderson’s right becoming separated from Mclaws’s left and no support coming to these brigades they returned to their former line.
July 3. The Corps occupied the same position. Reserve batteries were placed facing the Union lines. The Confederate line held by Anderson’s Division half of Pender’s and half of Heth’s the remainder of Corps ordered to report to General Longstreet as a support in the assault to be made on the Union position on Cemetery Ridge. About 1 P. M. the artillery along the line opened fire. 3 P. M. the assault was made and failed. Anderson’s Division was held in reserve. The troops fell back to former positions.
July 4. The Corps took up the line of march during the night.
Casualties Killed 837 Wounded 4407 Missing 1491 Total 6735
From the marker:
These headquarters were located at
a farm-house 540 yards westerly