12th Corps Headquarters flag 12th Corps, 1st Division Headquarters flag

 

The monument to 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 12th Army Corps is south of Gettysburg on Slocum Avenue. (Tour map: North Culp’s Hill)

The brigade was commanded at the Battle of Gettysburg by Brigadier General Henry H. Lockwood (USMA ’36), a professor at the United States Navel Academy. It had just joined the Army of the Potomac from rear area duty in Maryland and presented a command dilemma.

Lockwood was senior to other brigadiers in the First Division and would properly have been given it to command while Alpheus Williams temporarily commanded the corps. But Lockwood had never led troops in battle and had not even commanded his brigade as a unit on the field, much less a division. So it was decided to have him report directly to the corps commander (Williams, at this point). This allowed the experienced Ruger to temporarily take over the division. For that reason the brigade is often referred to as “Lockwood’s Independent Brigade” at Gettysburg.

After the battle Slocum returned to corps command, Williams to his division, and Lockwood had proved himself in battle. His brigade became the Second Brigade of the First Division on July 5th.

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Army of the Potomac
Twelfth Corps First Division
Second Brigade
Brig. Gen. Henry H. Lockwood
1st Maryland Potomac Home Brigade
1st Maryland Eastern Shore
150th NewYork Infantry

July 2. The 1st Maryland Potomac Home Brigade and 150th New York arrived at 8 A. M. and went into position between Rock Creek and the Baltimore Pike on right of Division. Brig. Gen. Lockwood receiving orders direct from the General Commanding Corps. Late in the day the Brigade went with Division to support Third Corps line and advanced over the ground from which the Corps had previously been forced. The 150th New York drew off 3 abandoned guns of 9th Mass. Battery and returned about midnight.

July 3. Took part in the recapture of works which Major General Johnson’s Division took possession of during the absence of Division the previous night. At about 8 A. M. 1st Maryland Eastern Shore arrived and joined Brigade. Ordered in the afternoon to Second Corps line near Cemetery to render support where needed. The Brigade was not assigned to the Division until July 5th.

Casualties Killed 3 Officers 32 Men Wounded 3 Officers 118 Men Captured or Missing 18 Men Total 174

Union Brigadier General Henry H. Lockwood